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About VSWR

For a radio (transmitter or receiver) to deliver power to an antenna, the impedance of the radio and transmission line must be well matched to the antenna's impedance. The parameter VSWR is a measure that numerically describes how well the antenna is impedance matched to the radio or transmission line it is connected to.

Voltage standing wave ratio stands for voltage standing wave ratio

Displays the value of the reflected wave compared to the input wave as the ratio of standing wave

Reflective wave problem occurs when laying coaxial cable in shipyard for following reasons

1. Cable damage

During cable routing, the cable bends beyond the bending radius It can be reflected around and generate reflected wave at cable end

2. Impedance unbalance

If the communication cable uses a 50 Ohm impedance cable, 50 Ohm must be maintained from the equipment to the antenna in order to prevent impedance unbalance

However, if the connector is not working properly or the impedance is not maintained at 50 Ohm due to the surrounding environment, the reflected wave may be caused by the impedance unbalance

3. EMI (Electro Magnetic Interference)

EMI generated from high-voltage wires may distort the output and cause reflected waves

SEANET measures the VSWR and return loss by using professional manpower and equipment to report the problem occurred when installing coaxial cable.

Test tool operated

  • 1. Site Master (Anritsu, S363E)

  • 2. Site Master (Anritsu, S331D)

1. Site Master (Anritsu, S363E) : 2 sets

Cable and Antenna Analyzer Highlights

Measurements: Return Loss, VSWR, Cable Loss, Distance-To-Fault, Phase

2-port Transmission Measurement: High/Low Power

Sweep Speed: 1 msec/data point, typical

Display : Single or Dual Measurement Touchscreen

Calibration: OSL, InstaCal, and FlexCal

Bias Tee: 32 V internal

Spectrum and Interference Analyzer Highlights

Measurements: Occupied Bandwidth, Channel Power, ACPR, C/I, Spectral Emission

Interference Analyzer: Spectrogram, Signal Strength, RSSI, Signal ID

Dynamic Range: > 95 dB in 10 Hz RBW

DANL: -152 dBm in 10 Hz RBW

Phase Noise: -100 dBc/Hz max @ 10 kHz offset at 1 GHz

Frequency Accuracy: <+ 50 ppb with GPS on

2. Site Master (Anritsu, S331D) : 1 set

Site Master Handheld Cable and Antenna Analyzer Model S331D covers 25 MHz to 4000 MHz spectrum. Suited for field technicians of any experience level working with VHF, broadcasting, paging, cellular, PCS/GSM, 3G, ISM, WLAN and WLL applications.

Measurement capability includes precision Return Loss/SWR, Cable Loss and optional T1/E1 and power meter measurements. Frequency Domain Reflectometry (FDR) provides Distance to Fault (DTF) analysis to locate faults accurately.

  • 3. Wattmeter (Bird, Model 43)

  • 4. Digital wattmeter (Comm-Connect, 3029)

3. Wattmeter (Bird, Model 43) : 2 sets

The 43 Wattmeter is a field-proven portable, insertion-type instrument designed to measure both forward and reflected CW power in coaxial transmission lines under any load condition. With a full-scale accuracy of ± 5%, it accurately measures RF power with low added VSWR and insertion loss. QC (quick change) type connectors and a full range of plug-in elements provide a wide choice of frequency ranges and power levels giving the Model 43 amazing flexibility. Two extra elements can be stored in the housing, one on each side.

Accurate CW field power measurement over 450 kHz to 2.7 GHz and 100 mW to 10 kW

Uses industry standard Bird elements with space to store 2 additional within the meter housing

Rugged metal housing for the most demanding environments

Quick Change (QC) connectors to minimize the need for adapters when making critical measurements

4. Digital wattmeter (Comm-Connect, 3029) : 1 set

The RF One Power Meter is a very versatile instrument covering both analogue and digital carriers in an extremely wide frequency range from 30MHz to 6GHz. The RF One is capable of measuring forward and reflected power in the range of a few milliwatts up to 500 Watts.

Frequency Range: 380 MHz to 6000 MHz

Antenna and Cable VSWR or Return Loss

Measure forward and reflected power

Power Range: 200uW to 500W

Fast RF Power Measurements

Show Pulse and Modulation amplitude

Cause of loss of
fiber optical cable

  • 1. Coupling loss

  • 2. Cable bending

  • 3. Connector and adapter contamination

1. Coupling loss

loss generated during welding process

2. Cable bending

If worker bend the fiber too hard, the light source will deviate from the fiber. And Single mode spectrum is more sensitive to bending than multimode spectrum

Keep radius of curvature 30mm

3. Connector and adapter contamination

Fiber optic cable test

  • Test Diagram

  • Test Result

Seanet qualified engineer will execute FO cable inspection job with SM/MM OLTS & OTDR Available Activity

1. Opitical Loss Test (Fluke CertiFiber Pro OLTS)

Damage and Contamination Check for longitudinal section

Connection Check

Polarity Check

Loss Check

  • Test Diagram

  • Test Result

2. Optical Time Domain Reflectometer (Fluke OptiFiber Pro OTDR)

Damage and Contamination Check for longitudinal section

Connection Check

Search Fault location

LAN cable test

  • 1. picture1-1

  • 2. picture1-2

  • 2. picture2

Seanet supplies LAN Cable (TIA Category 3, 4, 5, 5e, 6, 6A, 7a) test

picture 1-1,1-2 : Twisted pair cabling performance check (Search fault location)

picture 2 : Test report

LAN cable test

Seanet supplies Coverage test (all Wi-Fi technologies including true 802.11ac 3x3 support)

Access Point Check

Fail Access Point Detection

Signal Level Check

AP name or MAC address

SSID name (or count of SSIDs for virtual Aps)

Security / encryption

Type of Network

Test tools operated

  • 1. CableAnalyzer (Fluke, DSX-5000)

  • 2. Optical loss tester (Fluke, CFP-QUAD)

1. CableAnalyzer (Fluke, DSX-5000) : 1 set (2 pair)

The DSX CableAnalyzer copper test solution enables testing and certification of twisted pair cabling for up to 10 Gigabit Ethernet deployments and will handle any cabling system whether it is a Cat 5e, 6, 6A or Class FA. Certifying a cable is one part of a process that starts with system design and ends with system acceptance. The faster that process goes, the more profitable you’ll be. Unfortunately, there are a lot of things that slow the process down - setting up the tester incorrectly, testing to the wrong limits, waiting for skilled technicians to analyze and troubleshoot failures, misinterpretation of results, and producing test reports that customers can not understand.

2. Optical loss tester (Fluke, CFP-QUAD) : 1 set (2 pair)

The CertiFiber Pro Optical Loss Test Set improves the efficiency of fiber optics certification. The Taptive user interface simplifies set-up, eliminates errors and speeds troubleshooting. A set reference wizard ensures correct reference setting and eliminates negative loss errors. Built on the future-ready Versiv platform, CertiFiber Pro Optical Loss Test Set (OLTS) provides merged Tier 1 (Basic) / Tier 2 (Extended) testing and reporting when paired with OptiFiber Pro module. A convenient quad module supports both singlemode and multimode and is multimode Encircled Flux compliant. Copper certification and Wi-Fi Analysis and Ethernet troubleshooting modules are also available. Analyze test results and create professional test reports using LinkWare Management Software.

  • 3. Cable IQ Qualification tester (Fluke, CIQ-100)

  • 4. Lan cable tester (Fluke, MS2-100)

  • 5. Wireless tester (Netscout, Aircheck G2)

3. Cable IQ Qualification tester (Fluke, CIQ-100) : 1 set

The network tech's vision into cabling bandwidth CableIQ qualification tester is the first cabling bandwidth tester for network technicians. This Ethernet network cable tester gives even the most novice tech the vision to see what speeds existing cabling can support, quickly isolate cabling from network problems, and discover what is at the far end of any cable. That means network techs can close trouble tickets faster, reduce on-call time, and save money by better utilizing their existing infrastructure.

4. Lan cable tester (Fluke, MS2-100) : 1 set

Streamlined verification testing The MicroScannerTM Cable Verifier series simplifies the testing of voice, data, and video cable. It starts by taking results from what was four different test modes and displaying them all at once – graphical wiremap, pair lengths, distance to fault, cable ID, and far end device. What’s more, it supports virtually any type of low-voltage cable testing with no need for awkward adapters. The end result is reduced test time and technician error. That makes high-quality installations more efficient than ever.

5. Wireless tester (Netscout, Aircheck G2) : 1 set

A rugged, handheld purpose-built wireless tester supporting the latest Wi-Fi technologies (802.11a/b/g/n/ac) including true 802.11ac 3x3 support A one-button AutoTest, which quickly provides a pass/fail indication of the wireless environment and identifies common problems An instant view of test results including network availability, connectivity, utilization, security settings, rogue hunting, and interference detection

RFC254 Test

SEANET supports Throughput, Latency, Frame Loss and Back to Back tests as specified in RFC 2544. RFC 2544 defines a specific set of tests that can be used to evaluate equipment performance. It defines a set of 4 tests – Throughput, Latency, Frame Loss Rate, and Back-to-back frames. Networks referred in RFC 2544 can be Local Area Networks (LAN) or Wide Area Networks (WAN).

Throughput Test

The throughput test defines the maximum number of frames per second that can be transmitted without any error. This test is done to measure the rate-limiting capability of an Ethernet switch as found in carrier Ethernet services. The methodology involves starting at a maximum frame rate and then comparing the number of transmitted and received frames. Should frame loss occur, the transmission rate is divided by two and the test is restarted. If during this trial there is no frame loss, then the transmission rate is increased by half of the difference from the previous trial. This methodology is known as the half/doubling method. This trial-and-error methodology is repeated until the rate at which there is no frame loss is found.

The throughput test must be performed for each frame size. Although the test time during which frames are transmitted can be short, it must be at least 60 seconds for the final validation. Each throughput test result must then be recorded in a report, using frames per second (f/s or fps) or bits per second (bit/s or bps) as the measurement unit.

Latency Test

Latency is the total time taken for a frame to travel from source to destination. This total time is the sum of both the processing delays in the network elements and the propagation delay along the transmission medium.

In order to measure latency a test frame containing a time stamp is transmitted through the network. The time stamp is then checked when the frame is received. In order for this to happen the test frame needs to return to the original test set by means of a loopback (round-trip delay).

Frame Loss Test

The frame loss test measures the network’s response in overload conditions—a critical indicator of the network’s ability to support realtime applications in which a large amount of frame loss will rapidly degrade service quality. As there is no retransmission in real-time applications, these services might rapidly become unusable if frame loss is not controlled.

The test instrument sends traffic at maximum line rate and then measures if the network dropped any frames. If so, the values are recorded, and the test will restart at a slower rate (the rate steps can be as coarse as 10%, although a finer percentage is recommended). This test is repeated until there is no frame loss for three consecutive iterations, at which time a results graph is created for reporting. The results are presented as a percentage of frames that were dropped; i.e., the percentage indicates the variable between the offered load (transmitted frames) vs. the actual load (received frames). Again, this test must be performed for all frame sizes.

Back-to-back frame Test

Back-to-back frame testing involves sending a burst of frames with minimum inter-frame gaps to the DUT and count the number of frames forwarded by the DUT. If the count of transmitted frames is equal to the number of frames forwarded the length of the burst is increased and the test is rerun.

If the number of forwarded frames is less than the number transmitted, the length of the burst is reduced and the test is rerun. The back-to-back value is the number of frames in the longest burst that the DUT will handle without the loss of any frames.

The RFC 2544 test asks for the results of all these tests to be recorded both in text and graphical formats. The results can then give accurate performance data for both service provider and customer.

Test tools operated

1. Handheld Network Tester (VIAVI, MTS-5800) : 1 set (2 pair)

Fully-loaded TDM/PDH to dual 10 G Ethernet, SONET, SDH, Fiber Channel, and OTN support

Automated, enhanced RFC 2544 and SAMComplete testing per ITU-T Y.1564

Integrated burst testing approach per MEF 34 and RFC 6349 TrueSpeed™TCP throughput testin

Integrated Timing/Synchronization testing including PTP/1588v2, SyncE, Wander, and One Way Delay test

Fronthaul Testing CPRI/OBSAI Layer 1/Layer 2 and emulation of Baseband and Remote Radio u

Single- and dual-port versions

Compatible with VIAVI 4100-Series OTDR modules and Smart Link Mapper™, fiber microscopes, and optical power meters