For a radio (transmitter or receiver) to deliver power to an antenna, the impedance of the radio and transmission line must be well matched to the antenna's impedance. The parameter VSWR is a measure that numerically describes how well the antenna is impedance matched to the radio or transmission line it is connected to.
Voltage standing wave ratio stands for voltage standing wave ratio
Displays the value of the reflected wave compared to the input wave as the ratio of standing wave
Reflective wave problem occurs when laying coaxial cable in shipyard for following reasons
1. Cable damage
During cable routing, the cable bends beyond the bending radius It can be reflected around and generate reflected wave at cable end
2. Impedance unbalance
If the communication cable uses a 50 Ohm impedance cable, 50 Ohm must be maintained from the equipment to the antenna in order to prevent impedance unbalance
However, if the connector is not working properly or the impedance is not maintained at 50 Ohm due to the surrounding environment, the reflected wave may be caused by the impedance unbalance
3. EMI (Electro Magnetic Interference)
EMI generated from high-voltage wires may distort the output and cause reflected waves
SEANET measures the VSWR and return loss by using professional manpower and equipment to report the problem occurred when installing coaxial cable.
1. Site Master (Anritsu, S363E)
2. Site Master (Anritsu, S331D)
1. Site Master (Anritsu, S363E) : 2 sets
Cable and Antenna Analyzer Highlights
Measurements: Return Loss, VSWR, Cable Loss, Distance-To-Fault, Phase
2-port Transmission Measurement: High/Low Power
Sweep Speed: 1 msec/data point, typical
Display : Single or Dual Measurement Touchscreen
Calibration: OSL, InstaCal, and FlexCal
Bias Tee: 32 V internal
Spectrum and Interference Analyzer Highlights
Measurements: Occupied Bandwidth, Channel Power, ACPR, C/I, Spectral Emission
Interference Analyzer: Spectrogram, Signal Strength, RSSI, Signal ID
Dynamic Range: > 95 dB in 10 Hz RBW
DANL: -152 dBm in 10 Hz RBW
Phase Noise: -100 dBc/Hz max @ 10 kHz offset at 1 GHz
Frequency Accuracy: <+ 50 ppb with GPS on
2. Site Master (Anritsu, S331D) : 1 set
Site Master Handheld Cable and Antenna Analyzer Model S331D covers 25 MHz to 4000 MHz spectrum. Suited for field technicians of any experience level working with VHF, broadcasting, paging, cellular, PCS/GSM, 3G, ISM, WLAN and WLL applications.
Measurement capability includes precision Return Loss/SWR, Cable Loss and optional T1/E1 and power meter measurements. Frequency Domain Reflectometry (FDR) provides Distance to Fault (DTF) analysis to locate faults accurately.
3. Wattmeter (Bird, Model 43)
4. Digital wattmeter (Comm-Connect, 3029)
3. Wattmeter (Bird, Model 43) : 2 sets
The 43 Wattmeter is a field-proven portable, insertion-type instrument designed to measure both forward and reflected CW power in coaxial transmission lines under any load condition. With a full-scale accuracy of ± 5%, it accurately measures RF power with low added VSWR and insertion loss. QC (quick change) type connectors and a full range of plug-in elements provide a wide choice of frequency ranges and power levels giving the Model 43 amazing flexibility. Two extra elements can be stored in the housing, one on each side.
Accurate CW field power measurement over 450 kHz to 2.7 GHz and 100 mW to 10 kW
Uses industry standard Bird elements with space to store 2 additional within the meter housing
Rugged metal housing for the most demanding environments
Quick Change (QC) connectors to minimize the need for adapters when making critical measurements
4. Digital wattmeter (Comm-Connect, 3029) : 1 set
The RF One Power Meter is a very versatile instrument covering both analogue and digital carriers in an extremely wide frequency range from 30MHz to 6GHz. The RF One is capable of measuring forward and reflected power in the range of a few milliwatts up to 500 Watts.
Frequency Range: 380 MHz to 6000 MHz
Antenna and Cable VSWR or Return Loss
Measure forward and reflected power
Power Range: 200uW to 500W
Fast RF Power Measurements
Show Pulse and Modulation amplitude
1. Coupling loss
2. Cable bending
3. Connector and adapter contamination
1. Coupling loss
loss generated during welding process
2. Cable bending
If worker bend the fiber too hard, the light source will deviate from the fiber. And Single mode spectrum is more sensitive to bending than multimode spectrum
Keep radius of curvature 30mm
3. Connector and adapter contamination
Seanet qualified engineer will execute FO cable inspection job with SM/MM OLTS & OTDR Available Activity
1. Opitical Loss Test (Fluke CertiFiber Pro OLTS)
Damage and Contamination Check for longitudinal section
2. Optical Time Domain Reflectometer (Fluke OptiFiber Pro OTDR)
Damage and Contamination Check for longitudinal section
Search Fault location
Seanet supplies LAN Cable (TIA Category 3, 4, 5, 5e, 6, 6A, 7a) test
picture 1-1,1-2 : Twisted pair cabling performance check (Search fault location)
picture 2 : Test report
Seanet supplies Coverage test (all Wi-Fi technologies including true 802.11ac 3x3 support)
Access Point Check
Fail Access Point Detection
Signal Level Check
AP name or MAC address
SSID name (or count of SSIDs for virtual Aps)
Security / encryption
Type of Network
1. CableAnalyzer (Fluke, DSX-5000)
2. Optical loss tester (Fluke, CFP-QUAD)
1. CableAnalyzer (Fluke, DSX-5000) : 1 set (2 pair)
The DSX CableAnalyzer copper test solution enables testing and certification of twisted pair cabling for up to 10 Gigabit Ethernet deployments and will handle any cabling system whether it is a Cat 5e, 6, 6A or Class FA. Certifying a cable is one part of a process that starts with system design and ends with system acceptance. The faster that process goes, the more profitable you’ll be. Unfortunately, there are a lot of things that slow the process down - setting up the tester incorrectly, testing to the wrong limits, waiting for skilled technicians to analyze and troubleshoot failures, misinterpretation of results, and producing test reports that customers can not understand.
2. Optical loss tester (Fluke, CFP-QUAD) : 1 set (2 pair)
The CertiFiber Pro Optical Loss Test Set improves the efficiency of fiber optics certification. The Taptive user interface simplifies set-up, eliminates errors and speeds troubleshooting. A set reference wizard ensures correct reference setting and eliminates negative loss errors. Built on the future-ready Versiv platform, CertiFiber Pro Optical Loss Test Set (OLTS) provides merged Tier 1 (Basic) / Tier 2 (Extended) testing and reporting when paired with OptiFiber Pro module. A convenient quad module supports both singlemode and multimode and is multimode Encircled Flux compliant. Copper certification and Wi-Fi Analysis and Ethernet troubleshooting modules are also available. Analyze test results and create professional test reports using LinkWare Management Software.
3. Cable IQ Qualification tester (Fluke, CIQ-100)
4. Lan cable tester (Fluke, MS2-100)
5. Wireless tester (Netscout, Aircheck G2)
3. Cable IQ Qualification tester (Fluke, CIQ-100) : 1 set
The network tech's vision into cabling bandwidth CableIQ qualification tester is the first cabling bandwidth tester for network technicians. This Ethernet network cable tester gives even the most novice tech the vision to see what speeds existing cabling can support, quickly isolate cabling from network problems, and discover what is at the far end of any cable. That means network techs can close trouble tickets faster, reduce on-call time, and save money by better utilizing their existing infrastructure.
4. Lan cable tester (Fluke, MS2-100) : 1 set
Streamlined verification testing The MicroScannerTM Cable Verifier series simplifies the testing of voice, data, and video cable. It starts by taking results from what was four different test modes and displaying them all at once – graphical wiremap, pair lengths, distance to fault, cable ID, and far end device. What’s more, it supports virtually any type of low-voltage cable testing with no need for awkward adapters. The end result is reduced test time and technician error. That makes high-quality installations more efficient than ever.
5. Wireless tester (Netscout, Aircheck G2) : 1 set
A rugged, handheld purpose-built wireless tester supporting the latest Wi-Fi technologies (802.11a/b/g/n/ac) including true 802.11ac 3x3 support A one-button AutoTest, which quickly provides a pass/fail indication of the wireless environment and identifies common problems An instant view of test results including network availability, connectivity, utilization, security settings, rogue hunting, and interference detection
SEANET supports Throughput, Latency, Frame Loss and Back to Back tests as specified in RFC 2544. RFC 2544 defines a specific set of tests that can be used to evaluate equipment performance. It defines a set of 4 tests – Throughput, Latency, Frame Loss Rate, and Back-to-back frames. Networks referred in RFC 2544 can be Local Area Networks (LAN) or Wide Area Networks (WAN).
The throughput test defines the maximum number of frames per second that can be transmitted without any error. This test is done to measure the rate-limiting capability of an Ethernet switch as found in carrier Ethernet services. The methodology involves starting at a maximum frame rate and then comparing the number of transmitted and received frames. Should frame loss occur, the transmission rate is divided by two and the test is restarted. If during this trial there is no frame loss, then the transmission rate is increased by half of the difference from the previous trial. This methodology is known as the half/doubling method. This trial-and-error methodology is repeated until the rate at which there is no frame loss is found.
The throughput test must be performed for each frame size. Although the test time during which frames are transmitted can be short, it must be at least 60 seconds for the final validation. Each throughput test result must then be recorded in a report, using frames per second (f/s or fps) or bits per second (bit/s or bps) as the measurement unit.
Latency is the total time taken for a frame to travel from source to destination. This total time is the sum of both the processing delays in the network elements and the propagation delay along the transmission medium.
In order to measure latency a test frame containing a time stamp is transmitted through the network. The time stamp is then checked when the frame is received. In order for this to happen the test frame needs to return to the original test set by means of a loopback (round-trip delay).
Frame Loss Test
The frame loss test measures the network’s response in overload conditions—a critical indicator of the network’s ability to support realtime applications in which a large amount of frame loss will rapidly degrade service quality. As there is no retransmission in real-time applications, these services might rapidly become unusable if frame loss is not controlled.
The test instrument sends traffic at maximum line rate and then measures if the network dropped any frames. If so, the values are recorded, and the test will restart at a slower rate (the rate steps can be as coarse as 10%, although a finer percentage is recommended). This test is repeated until there is no frame loss for three consecutive iterations, at which time a results graph is created for reporting. The results are presented as a percentage of frames that were dropped; i.e., the percentage indicates the variable between the offered load (transmitted frames) vs. the actual load (received frames). Again, this test must be performed for all frame sizes.
Back-to-back frame Test
Back-to-back frame testing involves sending a burst of frames with minimum inter-frame gaps to the DUT and count the number of frames forwarded by the DUT. If the count of transmitted frames is equal to the number of frames forwarded the length of the burst is increased and the test is rerun.
If the number of forwarded frames is less than the number transmitted, the length of the burst is reduced and the test is rerun. The back-to-back value is the number of frames in the longest burst that the DUT will handle without the loss of any frames.
The RFC 2544 test asks for the results of all these tests to be recorded both in text and graphical formats. The results can then give accurate performance data for both service provider and customer.
1. Handheld Network Tester (VIAVI, MTS-5800) : 1 set (2 pair)
Fully-loaded TDM/PDH to dual 10 G Ethernet, SONET, SDH, Fiber Channel, and OTN support
Automated, enhanced RFC 2544 and SAMComplete testing per ITU-T Y.1564
Integrated burst testing approach per MEF 34 and RFC 6349 TrueSpeed™TCP throughput testin
Integrated Timing/Synchronization testing including PTP/1588v2, SyncE, Wander, and One Way Delay test
Fronthaul Testing CPRI/OBSAI Layer 1/Layer 2 and emulation of Baseband and Remote Radio u
Single- and dual-port versions
Compatible with VIAVI 4100-Series OTDR modules and Smart Link Mapper™, fiber microscopes, and optical power meters